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The Literary Function of the Remnant Motif in Isaiah’s Royal Narratives

As mentioned in previous posts, my recent work has been on the remnant motif in the book of Isaiah. As I understand the motif, it functions on a literary level in two distinct ways: 1) As an indication of blessing for Judah (cf. 4:3; 10:20-21; 11:11, 16; 28:5; 46:3-4); and 2) As an indication of the severity of judgment for the nations (14:22, 30; 15:9; 16:14; 17:3; 24:6) and Judah (1:9; 6:13; 10:22). One particular relationship that I found especially intriguing was the use of the motif in the two so-called Royal Narrative units (7:1-25; 36:1-37:38). Here, the literary function of the remnant betrays the prophetic perspective of the monarchy, contrasting the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah as negative and positive examples of kingship.

The parallels between the two sections themselves can hardly be missed. Both narratives, set in the context of the threat of invasion by foreign armies, occur geographically in the same place – “the conduit of the upper pool on the highway to the Washer’s Field” (7:3; 36:2). This location is referenced only in these two narratives and in the parallel account of chapter 36 in 2 Kings 18, indicating more than mere coincidence. Furthermore, the progression of events establishes an obvious parallel as the report of the mounting threat provokes great anxiety in both kings, followed by signs of reassurance, and the command of Yahweh mediated through the prophet Isaiah not to fear. That the two literary units were intended to parallel one another is clear, yet, the dissimilarities form an equally significant relationship.

While both narratives follow the same order of events, moving from crisis to promise, promise to sign, sign to response, the characters in each narrative are presented antithetically. In chapter 7, Yahweh sends the prophet Isaiah in response to the military threat to speak words of comfort to King Ahaz near the Washer’s field, yet in the contrasting narrative (36-37), the king of Assyria sends his emissary, the Rabshakeh, to speak words of threat at the Washer’s field. Furthermore, whereas Ahaz exhibited his unbelief in rejecting the request for a sign (7:12), the Hezekiah narrative makes no such statement. Together, the narratives present two models of leadership in Judah: one that rejects the covenant promises of Yahweh and one that exhibits trust in the God of Israel. It is in the context of this contrast that the literary function of the remnant motif emerges.

Isaiah 7:3, 21

The remnant motif makes a two-fold appearance in chapter seven, both following the report of the coalition of Syria and the Northern kingdom of Israel—an event that causes both the king and the nation of Judah to tremble like trees in the wind (v. 2). In response, the prophet Isaiah is instructed to assure the king that Yahweh will indeed deliver the people by diffusing the league by the use of a superior military power. Almost in passing, Isaiah is commanded to take along his son שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב (“a remnant will return”) (v. 3). This constitutes the first reference to Isaiah’s family in the book, who, as becomes clear later, prove to be significant in the prophet’s own ministry as signs for Israel (8:18).

It is immediately apparent by the identification of his name that Isaiah’s son holds significance to his overall use of the remnant motif. Yet, though all agree that the name שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב is significant, its specific meaning has posed some difficulty for interpreters. Does the mention of a remnant reinforce the message of comfort to the king that a remnant will indeed return despite the threat to national security? Does the name imply the weight of a coming judgment, namely that only a remnant will return after a devastating defeat? Or, does the name pertain not to Israel itself but to the enemy armies that their forces will be greatly diminished if they continue their advance? It must be admitted that the immediate context of the passage provides no explicit answer to these questions. To complicate matters further, two parallel expressions are found in 10:20-23, displaying, in my view, both a positive and negative literary use of the remnant motif.

Yet, when set in the wider literary context, as well as in contrast to the Hezekiah narrative, the function of the name becomes clear. It must be remembered that at this point in chapter seven, Isaiah’s son was a young boy, and this, at least on a literary level, may indicate that his name did not originate in response to the Syro-Ephramite threat. Furthermore, the prediction of a remnant during the time of peace prior to this event would have no functional positive connotation, unless destruction was already expected. Thus on a literary plain, the mention of the remnant at the beginning of the narrative may anticipate Ahaz’s rejection of Yahweh’s assurance, casting a negative light over the entire chapter. Thus, the enigmatic meaning of Isaiah’s son’s name is resolved by the wider context of chapter seven.

The second mention of the remnant in Isaiah 7, occurring in the context of the sign of Immanuel (vv. 10-25), furthers this interpretation of the chapter. Verses 18-25, comprised of four בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא (“on that Day”) statements, describe Yahweh’s purpose to summon Assyria to overtake the land, thus fulfilling the judgment portended by Isaiah’s son at the beginning of the chapter. While the first two statements are generally recognized as oracles of judgment, the latter two have proved problematic for scholars, with some arguing for a continuation of judgment and others for a shift to a positive note of prosperity.

The crux of the debate falls on the interpretation of verses 21-22 as the question becomes, is the mention of curds and honey an allusion to the glorious land promised to the exodus generation (Exod 3:8; 13:5; Num 13:27)? Or, does it betray an expectation of a deserted land that reflects the national poverty of Judah? In the larger context of judgment, the latter seems to be the preferred option. When all four oracles are taken together, the picture delineates a land that is so desolated from war that the livestock have endless plains to graze with no urban populations to hinder them. What was once thriving farmland is now only fit for grazing. Though the imagery of curds and honey can itself function, as with the remnant motif, both in positive and negative contexts, here it presents itself negatively. All four בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא statements thus come together to magnify the coming judgment, furthering the message proclaimed in verses 1-9. Isaiah prophesies a desolate land to demonstrate the folly of distrusting Yahweh.

An objection may be raised at this point against a negative interpretation of the chapter that Isaiah’s mission is to prophesy the failure of the Syro-Ephramite league, thus offering protection and security for Ahaz. According to this reading, the remnant would accompany the message of hope as the prophet strengthens and encourages the king. Yet, in addition to the points above, the mention of the remnant in this specific context could hardly afford substantial comfort. For, the means of disbanding the Syro-Ephramite league is the Assyrian army foretold in the second unit (v. 17ff), who, though providing relief from the imminent threat, would bring unimaginable destruction upon the land, beyond any assault that the coalition could deal. It is akin, to borrow a metaphor, to escaping a lion only to encounter a bear. The contextual data thus lends weight to the remnant used in a negative context as an indication of judgment. The faithless response of Ahaz further supports this negative interpretation, standing as the antithesis of the positive portrayal of Hezekiah.

Isaiah 37:4, 31-32

Nearly thirty years after the collapse of the Syro-Ephramite coalition, Judah faced the threat of annihilation yet again, but now at the hands of their former deliverer, Assyria. In 701 B.C.E., Sennacherib marched against Jerusalem, an event recorded by the prophet Isaiah (Isa 36-37).

Sennacherib, through the mediation of his official, the Rabshakeh, calls for the surrender of the city in the hearing of the people (36:2-20). Composed of both threat and promise, the Rabshakeh launches a compelling ploy of psychological warfare to make surrender appear the preferable option. Reminding the city of Assyria’s military success, coupled with the lack of viable alliance options for the city’s defense, the Rabshakeh warns against trusting Hezekiah, whose removal of cultic sites could hardly gain the favor of the nation deity. What the Rabshakeh offers, in essence, is a new Solomonic reign of safety and prosperity under the lordship of the king of Assyria (cf. 1 Kgs 4:25). On a natural level, capitulation to Sennacherib was indeed logical, yet Hezekiah’s devotion to Yahweh precluded such a response.

The first occurrence of the remnant motif in this passage is found in Hezekiah’s appeal to Isaiah the prophet to intercede on the city’s behalf (37:2-4). In the final clause of his request, Hezekiah says, “lift up your prayer for the remnant [הַשְּׁאֵרִית] that is left” (37:4f-g). The function of the remnant motif here, though clearly referencing the current population in Jerusalem, is not immediately discernible, either serving as a positive expectation of hope (ie. “Yahweh has left a remnant to this point, he will certainly deliver us now”) or a desperate cry of despair (ie. “The destruction Assyria has dealt is so severe that only a remnant is left”).

A clarifying text does indeed occur in the prophet’s extended response to Hezekiah’s second appeal (37:21-35). Yahweh, exposing the folly of Sennacherib’s boasting, reasserts his sovereignty over even the king’s military conquests. For, before Sennacherib had planned his offensive strategy, Yahweh had already determined the path of his victory (v. 26). And as the one who establishes success in battle, Yahweh states his purpose to turn away the threat against Jerusalem, leading Sennacherib away with a hook in his nose and a bit in his mouth (29). Following his address to the king of Assyria, Yahweh provides a sign to Hezekiah in verse 30, though it lacks the miraculous luster one may expect. For the following two years, the city would live off the produce of the land, followed by a year of agricultural normality. Though this sign may appear ordinary, it is upon this guarantee that Yahweh pledges a “surviving remnant of the house of Judah [פְּלֵיטַת בֵּית־יְהוּדָה הַנִּשְׁאָרָה] shall again take root downward and bear fruit upward” (v. 31).

Here in the context of Yahweh’s promise to prosper the city, the pairing of פְּלֵיטַת and שׁאר forms a more developed picture of the remnant motif as an indication of blessing. It is interesting to note that in verse 31 it is the remnant itself that is bearing fruit, and not simply eating the fruit that had previously grown (v. 30f). Thus what Hezekiah is told is that Yahweh, who will sustain the inhabitants of Jerusalem with the produce of the land, will further plant the remnant as a tree that bears fruit in season. The combination of roots established in the earth and the bountiful production of vine classify the remnant as secure and healthy. Unlike the vineyard that yielded wild grapes in chapter five, the remnant shall once again be fruitful.

As seen in these narrative texts, Isaiah employs the remnant motif as a literary indicator of the monarchial climate in Judah. When used of a faithless king such as Ahaz, the motif can indicate the severity of judgment that will be brought upon the people. Yet, standing in juxtaposition, the remnant can also display Yahweh’s purpose to preserve and prosper his people led by faithful Hezekiah.




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The Problem of Time in Joel

For being such a short work, the book of Joel contains a host of problematic issues that have troubled its interpreters. One of the most significant is the historical/literary relationship between the first two chapters. The question is, is the locust plague of chapter one a literal infestation of locust portending the invasion of chapter two? Or, does the imagery portray the devastation left in the wake of an enemy army throughout both chapters? Indeed, answers do not come easy.

The latest issue of the Journal of Biblical Literature contains an article by Ronald L. Troxel that addresses the question once again. I have not yet had an opportunity to read the article, but the abstract does sound intriguing:

Scholarship on the book of Joel has long been vexed by the wayyiqtol verb forms in 2:18-19a. Ibn Ezra suggested that they are analogous to the prophetic perfect, expressing certainty about the outcome, while Adalbert Merx suggested that they should be read as simple wāw + jussive, and Julius Bewer argued that the imperative forms in 2:15-16 should be read as simple qatal forms, enabling vv. 15-17 to be read as a report of the people’s response to the exhortation of vv. 12-14. More recent studies of Joel 2 have found it difficult to explain the interchange of qatal and yiqtolverbs in vv. 2-11. Some have explained these as signaling the intrusion of redactional materials, while others have sought to accommodate them under a tense or aspectual understanding of the verbal system. Still others have despaired of finding a solution and have adopted readings of the verbs based solely on the context. Both of these problems are, however, amenable to rather straightforward solutions. On the one hand, the wayyiqtol verbs of 2:18-19a come into focus once we recognize the narrative structure of the book. The wayyiqtol verbs are embedded in speech by the narrator, whose voice was last heard in 1:4. On the other hand, the qatal and yiqtol verbs in 2:3-11 follow typical morphosyntactic and morphosemantic patterns, once we take into account their discourse settings, particularly the pragmatics of their clauses.

For those with access to JBL, you can find the article here.

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Zephaniah the Preacher


The legitimacy of rhetorical analyses of the New Testament has been an area of lively debate in scholarly circles. For anyone who was not at IBR this last year, the tension in the room during the dialogue between Stan Porter and Ben Witherington III was a bit uncomfortable to say the least. The question is, “should the text of the New Testament be studied as texts that would first have been preached?”

While New Testament scholars have greater difficulty coming to a consensus on this question, those who study prophetic literature can enjoy much more common ground. For, before the  prophets’ messages were recorded, they were proclaimed to Israel and Judah. And as any good preacher knows, the power of a well managed illustration can hardly be underestimated.

In a previous post, I mentioned a paper I am presenting to a Prophetic Literature seminar on the rhetorical function of the remnant motif. Though I have since shifted the emphasis of my paper to a literary approach, I remain intrigued by the rhetorical usage of the motif, especially as it appears in negative contexts against both Israel/Judah and the nations. One instance that i found particularly stimulating was in the book of Zephaniah

In chapter 1, Zephaniah details the judgment of Yahweh “against Judah and against all the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (v. 4a). Judgment is warranted for patterns of idolatry and syncretism, which had apparently seeped even into the king’s household (v. 8). In describing the objects of Yahweh’s judgment, Zephaniah says “And I will cut off from this place the remnant of Baal” (v. 4c). The phrase “remnant of Baal” has posed difficulty for many scholars, as it appears at first enigmatic.

Yet, the remnant here, paralleling the idolatrous priest in the following clause (v. 4d), evidences its intrinsically negative character. Furthermore, when set in conjunction with the other wicked groups mentioned in verses 4-6, the remnant appears to refer to more than the idols themselves, identifying, rather, a group of people.

The reason for the appropriation of “the remnant of Baal” in reference to a group, presumably of Judahites, may at first appear enigmatic, but when assessed on a rhetorical level, the motif provides insight into the situation in Judah. Marvin Sweeney notes that there exists a “tendency of biblical traditions to employ the language of the Canaanite cult to polemicize against YHWHistic practices that were not considered to be legitimate.”[1] 

Hence, what Zephaniah describes is a band of syncretistic priests acting not as the religious leaders of the holy remnant of Judah, but rather as the remnant of Baal. Such an image would certainly provoke the attention of his original audience.

In my view, Zephaniah’s ministry coincided with the Josianic reforms of. 622 BC, and was indeed influential in its success. Thus, the announcement of judgment by Zephaniah, accords with Josiah’s purging of syncretism during the early stages of restoration. The proclamation of Zephaniah during this time functioned to undergird and validate the king’s program of reform. And the remnant motif was a potent rhetorical device to motivate the people to reject lawlessness and embrace a posture of covenant fidelity. Zephaniah was indeed an able preacher.


[1] Marvin A. Sweeney, Zephaniah: A Commentary, Hermeneia (Minneapolis; Fortress, 2003), 68.

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Some Helpful Guidelines for Evangelical Scholarship


For Evangelicals who traverse the waters of biblical Scholarship, the tension between the critical study of the Bible and reverence for it as the inspired Word of God hangs in a delicate balance. While it is popular to simply write off Evangelicals as enemies of progress who unnecessarily resist the tides of contemporary scholarly opinion, others recognize the presence of presuppositions on both sides of the divide.

As those who have been saved by grace, Evangelicals cannot reduce the Bible to just another literary product of the ancient world. Rather, Evangelicals must seriously think through the various issues that intersect in our doctrine of Scripture. Questions of historical matters and textual problems must be addressed; context and canon must be understood; and, the place of reason and faith must be weighed. For the Church of Jesus Christ to be built, truth must be the catalyst for our endeavor.

Though these issues can be complex, the Baker Academic Blog has  posted a list of Ten Guidelines for Evangelical Scholarship from NT scholar Donald Hagner. This list synthesizes the central points of the matter, allowing for both an appreciation for the humanity of Scripture, notwithstanding its divine origin. As those with a high view of Scripture, Evangelicals must learn think critically, all the while proclaiming the good news of our resurrected king.

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So You Want to Improve your Hebrew?

I remember as a second semester Hebrew student wishing that I could have my professor present while I worked through Hebrew texts at home. Unfortunately, my professors rarely made house calls, even when the syntax of a adversative clause lay on the line. Along with many others, my translation technique consisted of simply looking up words in BDB and mashing them together into a wooden translation, leaving aside the complicated question of syntax and structure. If only I had someone to take me through a text line by line.

Amos handbook

Although there are many resources that can help improve your reading of Hebrew, one that I have recently benefited from is the Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Bible Series. I have been working through the volume on Amos authored by a professor of mine, Duane Garrett. In the book, Garrett walks through every stanza, strophe, and line of Amos, describing the syntax and function of each grammatical construction, with a little commentary. This book does not address the text-critical problems of Amos, except where necessary for intelligibility, but focuses on the present form of the text.

By working through this book, students who have had a couple semesters of Hebrew can learn to read grammatically on a discourse level with a Hebrew Bible professor at their beck and call. I have not had a chance to reference any of the other volumes in the series, but have heard mostly positive reports from others.

One word of caution with the Amos volume: occasionally, words are missing or misspelled in the text. As you working through the book, I recommend having your Hebrew Bible open, for the simple purpose of verifying the text. With that caveat, I cannot recommend this work more highly.

You can read a review of the book here.

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A Review of James Nogalski’s Commentary on the Book of the Twelve


Beth Stovell of St. Thomas University has written a review of the first volume of James D. Nogalski’s recent commentary on the Book of the Twelve (Hosea-Jonah). While it is certainly not plausible to provide a full critique of such a massive work (488+ pages), Stovell makes some helpful introductory comments. You can read the review here.

At the last annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, I attended a panel discussion reviewing Nogalski’s commentary. While some of the panelists raised sound critiques regarding both content and methodology, others proved to be not so helpful. Indeed, one panelist spent the lion’s share of his review chanting for more Wellhausen and less application in Nogalski’s approach. Text-critical issues aside, such a response obviously misses the target audience of the publishers. And though I diverge from Nogalski on  many significant issues, his approach provides many rich insights, especially on the front of intertextual links between the books of the Twelve.

For those unfamiliar, Nogalski has set himself apart for his research on the Twelve. Although many, including myself, reject some of his conclusions, I cannot say that I have not benefited greatly from some of his insights. And though the question of the unity of the twelve is one of perpetual debate, Nogalski remains at the forefront of the conversation. Those interested in the Book of the Twelve will find this work provocative, for good or ill.

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The Calm before the Storm

The site has been quiet for several weeks. Lately, the whole of my writing efforts have been exhausted on a paper for a doctoral seminar on Prophetic Literature entitled “A Remnant Will Return: An Analysis of the Rhetorical Function of the Remnant in Isaiah and Zephaniah.” Though I will make further comments in upcoming posts, I wanted to catalog some initial observations derived from my research.

The general thesis of my paper is that in utilizing the remnant motif, focusing particularly on Isaiah 1-12 and Zephaniah in its entirety, the prophets portray the remnant community with both positive and negative connotations to invoke their hearers to return to a posture of covenant faithfulness.

At this point, two introductory problems emerge: the commission to Isaiah to deaden the sensitivities of his hearers (Isa 6:9-10) and the dating of Zephaniah’s prophetic ministry in relation to Josiah’s reforms. Here, brief comments must suffice.

The first problem arises from the tension of Isaiah’s commission to harden the hearts of Israel by his prophetic message and my contention of his intention to persuade his audience by use of the remnant motif. While Yahweh certainly declares the purpose/result of Isaiah’s ministry, one may wonder if Isaiah’s proclamation was  indeed hopeless, for his audience, after all, was destined to reject his message. Yet the book of Isaiah itself stands against such a claim. For, before the words of the prophet were penned, they were preached. Even if his audience was to be hardened, leaving his words for future generations (Isa 8:16), the pathos of his oracles can hardly be missed. As such, Isaiah sought to call his contemporaries to repentance, employing an illustrative rhetorical strategy.

To the second problem, ie. the context of Zephaniah’s ministry, I am inclined to locate his proclamation in the early period of Josiah’s reforms. The superscription of the book identifies the context of Zephaniah’s office as the reign of Josiah, which spanned 640-609 B.C. From an internal perspective, features of the text may give an indication of an early date of Zephaniah’s oracles. One such indication is the condemnation of idolatry, more specifically syncretism, as alluding to a period when such practices were, at least partially, still in effect. The purge by Josiah would make such a context favorable for Zephaniah’s forceful proclamation to bring the work to completion. Hence, Zephaniah, in my view, played a significant role during the course of the reforms, though they proved to be short lived.

Doubtlessly, many take divergent views to both the above points, but the point remains: the prophets employed imagery and rhetorical devices to evoke a response from their audience. Among others, the remnant motif functions as such a device. I will explore both the positive and negative contexts of the remnant in upcoming posts. In the meantime, I would welcome any of your initial thoughts.

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